Before we start designing fire alarm system, we need to understand the glossary of fire alarm system. Then we need to choose the fire alarm system type and make the layout of fire protection areas. We need to define alarm zone, detection zone. That will enable safety guard and fire automatic control equipment to make fast and accurate action of fire alarm. We need to know monitoring area, installing spacing and Monitoring Radius. That will help us calculate quantity of fire detectors we need and know where to install the detectors. We need to know types of fire alarm systems and choose the suitable one for fire department requirement.
Fire Alarm System Types
There are 3 types of fire alarm systems for design. These types of fire systems are suitable for different grade of fire protection buildings. There are specified requirements of this from local fire department.
Local Alarm System
It is Automatic fire alarm system with simple functions. It consists of zone fire alarm controller and fire detectors. It is suitable for II grade fire protection building such as residential building with less than 100m building height.
Remote Alarm System
It is Automatic fire alarm system with complex functions. It consists of addressable fire alarm controller, zone fire alarm controller or fire alarm displayer and fire detectors. It is suitable for I and II grade fire protection buildings. For example, shopping mall, hotel, hospital with area more than 1000 square meters.
Control Center Alarm System
It is Automatic fire alarm system with advanced functions. It consists of automatic fire extinguishing equipment, addressable fire alarm panel, zone fire panel or fire alarm displayer and fire detectors. It is suitable for special grade and I grade fire protection building such as residential building with more than 100m height.
Glossaries for fire alarm system design
It is the alarm areas of automatic fire alarm system. The fire protection area is divided into several alarm areas according to floor or fire prevention zones. An alarm zone should be composed of a fire prevention zone or several fire prevention zones on the same floor.
It is the Detection areas of automatic fire alarm system. The fire protection area is divided into several detection areas according to locations of fire detection or rooms. Each detection area should not exceed 500 square meters. The room can be one detection zone which area is less than 1000 square meters and its internal can be seen from main entrance.
The following places shall be separately divided into the detection area:
- Open or closed staircase
- Smoke proof staircase room, Fire lift room, Fire lift and smoke proof staircase combination front room
- Aisle, ramp, pipe well, cable tunnel
- Roof and layer of building
It is the area that a fire detector can detect (smoke, heat, flame etc.) effectively.
It is the horizontal distance between two adjacent fire detectors' centers. Generally the installing spacing of smoke detectors should be not exceed 15m. The installing spacing of heat detectors should be not exceed 10m.
It is the one-way maximum horizontal distance that a fire detector can effectively detect (smoke, heat etc.)